With China's rapid economic development, "Made in China" swept the world. However, the rapid expansion of the past 30 years has been difficult to sustain the way, on the one hand, due to the international economic downturn, the international market demand for Chinese-made products greatly shrinking; the other hand, the development of China's manufacturing industry by the environment, resources and other constraints.
At present, the global manufacturing industry competition, has transformed into the technology and innovation competition. With the continuous improvement of independent innovation capability, "Made in China" to "China-made" transformation is becoming a new outlet. "Made in China 2025" proposed, through the "three steps" to achieve the strategic goal of manufacturing power. In the outlet, China's Internet industry, the robot industry, high-end equipment manufacturing industry is always off the "Golden Pig", "Made in China" is to make a new journey towards manufacturing power. From now on launched " 'Made in China 2025' Path Focus" series of articles, so stay tuned.
The data outlined in the Chinese manufacturing industry is quite bleak. This year, the data used to express the decline of the manufacturing sector stumble endlessly.
Is the reality equally depressing? The author lasted more than a month, visited Guangdong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Shanghai, Fujian, Chongqing and other manufacturing powerhouse, witnessed hundreds of enterprises under the pressure of survival "pain" and development of "tired", also feel them Still strong pulse of the beat.
Different from the past, after 30 years of sustained high growth, "world factory" has gradually away from China. Through the current variety of complex and even contradictory industry phenomenon and data "fog", "Made in China" industry comparative advantage is being replaced.
Weak data highlight the grim situation
In the first quarter of this year, China's industrial added value of above-scale growth of 6.4%, an increase since May 2009 low, which further exacerbated the "Made in China" in a serious downward trend in the deep concern
Macroeconomic data is not optimistic, continued downward pressure, is China's industrial manufacturing since the second half of last year to the global market the most intuitive reflection. National Bureau of Statistics released the latest data show that in March this year, in the first quarter on the basis of low, above-scale industrial added value of China's real growth of only 5.6% year on year growth rate than the previous two months but also down 1.2 percentage points , To May this year, above-scale industrial added value increased by 6.1% year on year, has picked up but has not yet reached this year's high; HSBC China Manufacturing Purchasing Managers Index (PMI) fell from 49.6 in March to April And 49.2 in May, until June and then rose to 49.6. In addition, the first two months of this year, closely related to manufacturing and railway freight volume is also a cumulative decline, the decline was as high as 9.1%; the same closely linked with the manufacturing and real economy average daily output of power generation indicators in March There was 3.7% year on year decline ... ... all kinds of data are constantly exacerbated by external worries.
Data "stumble endlessly", does it mean that tens of thousands of Chinese manufacturing enterprises really "Aihongbanye" it?
China Electronic Information Industry Development Research Institute, said Rowan, the downward trend reflected by the grim situation can be used "plateau climbing" to describe, "the first two months of this year, China's industrial enterprises above designated size overall profit rate of only about 4.9% , In this case, the funds will flow to the real estate and stock markets rather than into the manufacturing sector, and thus bring greater pressure.
Although the data is not optimistic, but can not simply use "good" or "bad" to judge the current state of China's manufacturing industry, a variety of contradictions coexist, multiple complex intertwined, is "Made in China" a true portrayal.
Transitional barrier facing the test
Increased exchange rate volatility, rising labor and raw material costs, slow global market demand and other negative factors continue to affect China's manufacturing industry. After 30 years of sustained and rapid growth, China's manufacturing industry in which the market base and social environment has undergone fundamental changes. A number of industry and experts believe that the ability to make their own development and social needs to achieve run-in and docking, is the round of "transformation test" the fundamental pressure lies.
China's manufacturing sector at the transitional juncture is facing many challenges.
Transformation is one of a large number of manufacturing enterprises how to meet the international market demand to meet the domestic and international market demand simultaneously.
"The obvious trend in the last two years is that the foundries, which are simply manufacturing bases in China, are struggling to survive, or even shut down, but the manufacturing enterprises that are targeting the Chinese market," said Amy Chan, president of the American Chamber of Commerce in South China. P & G, the United States in favor, Amway and multinational auto giants are constantly replenishment expansion, the fundamental reason is that many years of economic growth has allowed the Chinese market development and growth, while social costs generally rise, which means "Made in China" And "world factory" simple painting equals, and should be mainly to meet the "Chinese demand" as the starting point. Take the Chamber of Commerce as an example, by the end of 2014, 79% of its member companies have been dedicated to providing products and services to the Chinese market, which is in stark contrast to only 23% in 2003.
"Foreign-funded enterprises like this, many Chinese enterprises, especially export-oriented enterprises need more personnel training, team building, product positioning and other aspects of change, or will be eliminated." Saidai Ding said.
Transformation of the second test is how the manufacturing enterprises from the scale of expansion to quality improvement, technological breakthroughs and cultural leadership.
Chinese Academy of Social Sciences Institute of Industrial Economics Jinbei pointed out that after 30 years of sustained growth, China is already well-deserved global manufacturing the first country, but a country's industrialization process depends not only on "flow" "Stock", which is the lack of our where. "On the surface, as if our manufacturing industry has no room for development, but in-depth look, in addition to high-speed rail and other individual areas, the majority of industrial technology is not high ground in China, which in the past our overall industrial development is flat push , The lack of height and depth have a direct correlation.History and reality have shown that upgrading the quality of the manufacturing industry can not be achieved by investment, and then go on to rely on technological breakthroughs, cultural leadership, this change is difficult, painful, But also a considerable part of the enterprise may not pass the mark where. "He said.
Economic columnist Wu Xiaobo believes that after 30 years of sustained development, China has formed a stable and influential middle-class consumer groups, their consumer goods and industrial products are from the requirements of the quality requirements to the quality requirements of change, "They appear, in fact, constitute a 'Made in China' turning point."
Transformation of the third test is how the comparative advantage of domestic manufacturing policy from the preferential and low-cost resources to the main industrial chain and improve the market system-based change.
Zhu Gaofeng, head of the research team of the Chinese Academy of Engineering, said that over the past few decades, preferential policies and sufficient supply of land and labor factors have provided a comparative advantage basis for China's manufacturing industry to catch up with the world. China has become the second largest economy and the legal environment of the continuous improvement of the market, has been difficult to maintain the same, but this does not mean that the Chinese manufacturing industry lost its competitiveness, "We are now the advantage, it is precisely the last 30 years accumulated New advantages, including the industrial chain, the domestic market is strong in these two areas, is not there a lot of companies to move out of China and moved back? The key is how to adapt to these changes.
Enterprises to actively respond to quenching rebirth
A high degree of excess production capacity, weak market demand, increased foreign exchange fluctuations, in such an environment, the author visited to see the market short-term anxiety and the development of long-term optimism exists at the same time.
In the southeast coastal areas, a clothing business owner to complain to the author, their village in the past two to three years, 70% of business failures, "I last year for the UNPROFOR on the road business owners compensate the bank more than 400 million yuan".
In the south of a city, the local government to the author recommended a number of workers up to tens of thousands of large-scale labor-intensive enterprises as a "contrarian development model", but the Hong Kong-owned enterprises head to see the author on the big grievances, said I am very optimistic about Myanmar and other places of the labor cost advantage, "the next two or three years or do not do the factory, or put the factory as a whole to Southeast Asia."
However, in this factory, "separated by a wall," Shenzhen, Huawei's rotating CEO Hu Houkun told the author that the world's top communications companies last year, the global sales income of 288.2 billion yuan, an increase of 20.6%; net profit of 27.9 billion yuan, An increase of 32.7%, than the subsequent ranking of Ericsson, Alcatel-Lucent and Nokia's total of more than a big slice.
"In the next five years we have confidence to continue to achieve an average annual growth rate of more than 10%!" In Jiangsu, Zhejiang and other places, once the bottom of the photovoltaic industry once again sprung up last year, not only the industry to achieve profitability, a number of dominant enterprises Also stand out in Changzhou, Trina Solar Group, the person in charge said to the author, is expected this year, corporate capacity can account for one-tenth of the world, "the world's first."